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  • Pozycja
    Balancing the Quality of Public Good within the Dynamics of Urban Form. Experiences from the redevelopment of residential areas in Bulgaria
    (Lodz University of Technology Press, 2023) Zlatinova-Pavlova Veneta
    The escalating speed of economic and technological development since the beginning of the 21st century is evident in the transformations of urban form and tissue worldwide taking the forms of both land-take and densification. The drivers behind these processes in Bulgaria have been the dynamics of political and economic contexts and the rearrangements of the legal framework since the fall of the Iron curtain. Being one of the most significant changes in spatial planning, the reframed balance between public and private has dominated the redevelopment and restructuring of urban tissue in Bulgaria for the last three decades. This paper relates the quality of public good in residential areas to their morphological characteristics through a diachronic comparative study of the development of two generic forms of residential areas in Bulgaria – the traditional housing neighbourhoods from the first half of the 20th century and the mass housing residential areas, called complexes, from the second half. It reflects on the morphological and structural changes from the perspective of quality of living and public good and evaluates the flexibility and adaptability of the typologies. It finally outlines the key relations between national context and city management that shape the streetscapes of the neighbourhoods.
  • Pozycja
    Discussion on the effect of topographic barrier on the morphology of Chinese mountainous cities: an example of Southwest China
    (Lodz University of Technology Press, 2023) Zhuoyuan Sun; Yong Huang
    China is a mountainous country and mountains account for 69% of the country’s land area. Therefore, relevant scholars believe that the second half of Chinese development with high quality urbanization is in the mountainous region. Topographic barrier in this mountainous district have been produced unique morphology of mountainous cities which also have negative impacts such as excessive construction costs and information blocking. So we take mountainous cities in south-western region which own the most mountainous cities in China, as the research object to analysis how to achieve high-quality development with mountainous region in China. Firstly, we summarize the types of topographic barrier such as horizontal cutting, vertical limitation and integrated guidance to form four morphological types of mountainous cities including clump, ribbon, radial and group over time by figure-to-bottom relationship and typological analysis. Then this interweaving of natural and artificial built environment forms a generalized spatiotemporal evolution model of mountainous cities. Finally, this evolutionary process has also formed spatial effects of different scales from region, urban and block perspective, respectively. Therefore, this article expects to introduce a Chinese unique mountainous urban space, providing a reference for development of mountainous cities in other countries.
  • Pozycja
    Spatial analysis and protection of traditional villages based on spatial syntax: A case study of Linlue Village of the Dong ethnic group in Sanjiang, Guangxi
    (Lodz University of Technology Press, 2023) Zhuo Xingyu; Hu Yushan; Yang Li
    After a long period of accumulation of agricultural society, traditional villages have bred unique material space and cultural connotations. As a typical representative of traditional villages, Dong villages have unique geographical location and rich material and cultural characteristics, and their spatial protection and cultural inheritance have far-reaching significance and value. Affected by the current urbanization construction, traditional villages have suffered different degrees of destruction. As a representation of the social culture of the village, the protection of the material space greatly affects the development and inheritance of the village. In this paper, spatial syntax is used to quantitatively analyse the spatial morphology of Linlue Village from the aspects of village integration, connection value, control value, and comprehensibility, and summarize the characteristics of its spatial form and the internal spatial characteristics of village buildings. It is concluded that its spatial development lacks planning and capital intervention is excessive and it is necessary to balance the contradiction between social development and physical space through systematic planning from space to management. Through the analysis of the village space, the article provides a reasonable spatial optimization plan in order to better protect the material space of the village and better inherit the traditional culture.
  • Pozycja
    Isochronal 3D-station realm model and Multi-data based urban renovation strategies in TOD development – a case in Heifei, China
    (Lodz University of Technology Press, 2023) Zhu Yuan; Wang Hao
    With the development of TOD in China, the TOD based urban planning is becoming one of the most important layer during the comprehensive urban design and development. To increase the value of existing urban land effectively by increasing the flow of people and integrate the scattered and inefficient land for future efficient usage, it gradually formed the strategies of transit oriented urban renewal and development. With the support of multi-dimensional data, this study takes Hefei Feixi Station as an example to introduce urban renovation strategies based on 3D-station realm layer data, Redundancy data, Accessibility data and integration data.
  • Pozycja
    Interpreting urban voids as the morphological reading tool of Historic Urban Landscape: The case study of former British concession in Tientsin
    (Lodz University of Technology Press, 2023) Zhao Dongqi; Pezzetti Laura
    Following the extended cognition of historical urban landscape, former concession areas are considered particular zones with certain historic and artistic values and undergo a tremendous conservative change. Current economic service-oriented transformation raised the issue of environmental rupture, gentrification and the decline of landscape diversity. Giving a glance at the variety of urban voids, this study analyses the neglected formation process of parks, boulevards, plazas as well as the Hang-Dao, and their morphological characteristic through history, integrates them into the general urban construction process meanwhile clarifies their dominating role in historic urban landscape image. Take the whole British concession area of Tientsin in modern time as the target, use historic maps as a discussion base, superimpose historical images and textual information to sort out continuous evolution and formative identities of urban voids. The results reflect in synthesis diagrams of urban void system which are constituted by a dominated crossing-axis and a hierarchical layering grid pattern in two morphological regions. These formative schemes could be further elaborated into conservation planning strategies for historical urban landscape.
  • Pozycja
    The dialogues in the regeneration of metropolitan heritage conservation areas: Case of Pingjiang Area, Suzhou
    (Lodz University of Technology Press, 2023) Zhang Suxin; Jachna Joseph Timothy; Ma Yuanhong
    In 2014, the Chinese Central Government earmarked fourteen Chinese cities with ‘red lines’, preventing further urban expansion. Listed as national famous historical and cultural cities in China, each of these fourteen cities contains run-down areas in its urban centre. The regeneration of heritage conservation areas (HCA) is a growing trend for future urban development, involving specific protection strategies and spatial requirements. The majority of such regeneration projects entail incentives driven by local governments. Linked to this, since the 1980s, urban governance has transformed from managerialism to more entrepreneurial practices. This transformation facilitates multi-stakeholder engagement in regeneration projects, and in particular, emphasising community engagement as a tool to assist with the transference of cultural values and the further promotion of sustainable development. By examining morphological conditions and spatial parameters of the Pingjiang Area of Suzhou, this paper aims to explicate the realisation of multi-stakeholder collaboration in the regeneration process of Chinese metropolitan heritage conservation areas. The discussion outlines spatial frameworks specific to collaboration-oriented regeneration projects and the morphological tools needed to implement regeneration strategies. Conclusions analyse the appropriation and morphological tools associated with regeneration projects, drawing points to future research into urban morphology and city identity.
  • Pozycja
    The Types and Distribution of Urban Image ‘Composite Pattern’ – An Empirical Study based on Qingdao, China
    (Lodz University of Technology Press, 2023) Zhang Nan; Huang Qilin; Jiang Zhengliang; Li Sai
    Kevin Lynch proposed the concept of the ‘Urban Image’ and its five elements based on the ‘mental picture’. However, the real urban scenes are often rather different from the abstraction of the urban image in people's minds. In the real urban scene, usually, there will be a combination of two or more ‘urban image’ elements, such as the Landmark company with the Node, the Path also act as the Edges which combine the Nodes or the Landmarks to contribute rhythm and decoration. Significantly, the patterns of urban image composition are specific, not random. This paper will discuss the patterns of ‘urban image’ composition, its types and distribution in a certain historical city. Based on the image survey of the ‘European district’ (built by German colonists, 1897–1914) in Qingdao, China, the paper empirically constructs the system of urban image ‘Composite Pattern’ and statistical of certain pattern types with the highest frequency. Meanwhile, inspired by the ‘picturesque theory’ (Gordon Cullen) which emphasizes a series of viewpoints, continuous images, and the structured ‘mental landscape’, the paper makes an investigation on the connection and switching of the adjacent Composite Patterns, to find out the distribution laws of various ‘Patterns’ in urban space. Revealing the laws of urban image structure, which benefit to get a better understanding of the value elements and landscape organization with the historical cities. Compared with the ‘urban image (Lynch)’ of the mental picture, the actual urban scene is more vivid and has a richer ‘sense of design’, and its related research will also provide a more direct reference for urban design.
  • Pozycja
    Changes in the landscape pattern of the north bank of Xiyuan based on drawing archives (1669–1980)
    (Lodz University of Technology Press, 2023) Zhang Nan
    The gardens of Beijing's Xiyuan have received widespread attention since the 1930s during the period of the Society for the Study of Chinese Architecture. Based on five drawings from 1669, 1750, 1759, 1874 and 1936, combined with the latest laser scanning point cloud model, this paper compiles and compares the landscape relationship, architectural layout and dimensions of individual buildings of the group over time. While sorting out the changes of the north bank of the Xiyuan, analysed the different garden design concept and pointed out that the precious value about the Xiyuan case is that each new construction and reconstruction is based on a large scale urban pattern and a small scale architectural modulus relationship, with a very clear design concept. At the same time, through the comparison of drawing methods and expressions of different periods, and discuss the functions and meanings of drawings for the recording and presentation of landscape architecture in different technical contexts. At the level of Architecture Survey, promote the elaborate documentation of this important group of historical gardens and at the methodological level, by combining pictorial and historical documentary analysis increase the inter-evidence relationship between the three types of research materials: physical, textual and pictorial.
  • Pozycja
    Political reform and the form of the city – Reading through the adoption of modern planning in Tehran using space syntax
    (Lodz University of Technology Press, 2023) Zhand Sepehr
    With the discovery of abundant oil resources and the bold agenda of the former monarch of Iran, a rigid and ambitious political reform was introduced in the country. Adopting a western way of economic development, these political reforms sought to not only change the social arrangement in the country but also change the way the country was looked upon. This set path for a series of radical and quick changes in the way everyday life of the city dwellers was facing. Given the importance of the industrialization in these political reforms and moving away from a labour-intensive economy, top-down modern master-planning changed the way the cities were thought of and in turn the way they meant to be serving the political agenda. In time for the rise of the modern methods of material production and vehicular-based strategic planning, the capital city of Tehran became the most prominent subject to these changes in terms of patterns of development and settlement schemes. Through a conversation between the planning and policy-making documents and a quantitative analysis of the built city, this research seeks to ask how the change in the political agenda and the approach in city making logic shapes the modern metropolitan area of Tehran and what are the fundamental differences between the process of growth in the built environment before and after the implementation of these changes. The analysis here shows that the fundamental change in the city of Tehran happened after the WWII that a series of development policies changed the logic of city making, and in turn the way the city grew and functioned afterwards.
  • Pozycja
    Social determinants behind water towns in Pearl River Delta, China whose historical tissues survive the impact of industrialization: Take three towns within the Sangyuanwei world heritage irrigation structures as examples
    (Lodz University of Technology Press, 2023) Zeng Yue; Yuan Qifeng
    Located in Foshan, Guangdong Province, China, which was awarded the world heritage irrigation structures in 2020, the Sangyuanwei polder embankment system has a history of more than 900 years and mainly consists of Xiqiao, Jiujiang and Longjiang three towns. Similar to other town in Pearl River Delta, these three also suffer from the onslaught of industrialization, but have maintain a relatively large number of historical tissues while keeping rapid economic development. This area is the largest and best-preserved dike-pond area in Pearl River Delta. Currently, there is considerable literature on the morphological characteristics of water towns in the agricultural era in Pearl River Delta, but little research has been done on that under the influence of industrialization. Meanwhile, most existing studies only focus on villages, with little mention of townships, which is actually an important content of urban morphology studies.
  • Pozycja
    Morphological Investigation of the Urban Form of Qom (Iran) at the Micro-scale: Spatial Distribution of Streets and Activities
    (Lodz University of Technology Press, 2023) Zamani Vahid; Mohammadi Mahmoud; Ghalehnoee Mahmoud
    Streets function as the interaction space for two systems of movement and activity. Street layout has influence on both distribution pattern of commercial/service (CS) activities and motorized/pedestrian traffic pattern and vice versa. Qom, a city located in central Iran with a long history of civilization, is characterised by a diverse typology of urban form and accordingly, different kinds of movement-activity patterns in the historic, middle and peripheral areas as the result of morphological, economic and social drivers. To take a step towards recognizing the patterns, this paper aims at rigorously explaining the relationship between the structural features of street layout and CS activity presence in Qom at the micro-scale, i.e. street segments, of the centralised zones through adopting a quantitative approach. After identifying ten morphologically-homogenous high-centralised superblocks – called local morphological zones (LMZs) –regarding street network centrality index of local closeness (LCNC) using Multiple Centrality Assessment (MCA), thedistribution of layout/activity elements alongside the street segments (weighted by LCNC) are investigated using Lorenz curve.Then, the distribution density datasets of layout/activity elements are modelled using Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) andanalysed by raster comparison techniques. The findings show that the linear distribution of the CS activities alongside the streetnetwork shows more relationship with LCNC rather than the street nodes. Concerning the areal distribution, the highest spatialcorrelation is found between the street nodes, i.e. three-ways and dead-ends and street segments (weighted by LCNC);furthermore, regarding street pattern, a typical historic fabric of Qom is a high-centralised area characterised by high proportionof three-ways and dead-ends, but, by low proportion of four-ways. The results are applicable in achieving the goals ofcommunity planning.
  • Pozycja
    Strategies to enhance the competitiveness of the city by realization of publicness
    (Lodz University of Technology Press, 2023) Yoon Soyoung; Kim SaeHoon; Lee JaeSeung
    As the world's economy becomes increasingly globalized, cities compete for people, capital and jobs with other areas. It is empirically known that the ‘realization of publicness’ is critical to enhancing a city's competitiveness. There are many actors in implementing publicness and here the local government and corporations are the key actors. Many actors are in play, including local governments and private corporations, creating the edges of public space towards value creation. This paper attempts to analyse the physical asset of public spaces in the Seoul metropolitan area, where many jobs have been created.
  • Pozycja
    The System of Floor-area-ratio (FAR) Transfer for Historical District Preservation and Renewal: Guangzhou’s and Taipei’s Experiences in a Comparative Perspective
    (Lodz University of Technology Press, 2023) Yang Shuya; Tian Yinsheng; Li Gang
    The emergence of floor-area-ratio transfer system originated in the USA in the 1960s. As a means of balancing interests and constraints, it was applied to the renewal and preservation of historic urban forms. Taking the practices of Taipei and Guangzhou as examples, this paper analyses the development process and influencing factors of the floor-area-ratio transferred system, compares the differences between Taipei and Guangzhou and draws the following conclusions. In Taiwan, the original intention of introducing the floor-area-ratio transfer is to protect the development rights of owners which have been limited by the protection of historical blocks. The floor-area-ratio transfer in Taiwan is a formalized system and the social groups and interest groups that rely on it have a great influence on the development of the system. Finally, a thriving floor-area-ratio transfer market has formed in Taiwan, involving many market participants. In Guangzhou, the floor-area-ratio transfer is an informal system arrangement that satisfies the financial balance of the developer with protective conditions. It is the transfer between different plots within the same developer. The planning committee system has become an option to compensate for the lack of legal sources.
  • Pozycja
    Research on the resilience assessment method of urban form based on‘resolution’
    (Lodz University of Technology Press, 2023) Yang Mingxing; Tian Yinsheng
    In his seminal work, Conzen recognized that the evolution of different morphological types of towns has different persistence, which reflects a certain resilience characteristic of the physical environment in response to the pressure of change. With the continuous progress of urban resilience research, scholars begin to combine typo-morphology theory with resilience theory. On the one hand, the typo-morphology method has great potential in assessing urban form resilience. On the other hand, there is a need to combine typo-morphological methods and resilience assessment to promote urban form practice. Based on the concept of ‘resolution’, this paper discusses the methodology of urban form resilience assessment. Firstly, it discusses the operability of urban resilience and the development of the concept of urban form resilience. Besides, combined with the current research works on urban form resilience, it proposes the construction of the ‘resilience assessment unit’ and its four levels: plot combination unit, block unit, urban area and urban unit are expounded, including Spatial characteristics and assessment contents.
  • Pozycja
    Impacts of daily supply on the layout of small commercial outlets in old communities: A Case Study of Shapingba street, Chongqing, China
    (Lodz University of Technology Press, 2023) Yang Li; Hu Yushan
    It is of great significance to study the spatial layout of small businesses for improving the basic security of residents' lives. As the main supplier of daily necessities for residents in old communities lacking large-scale commercial construction conditions, small businesses play an important role. Based on the data collected by questionnaires and interviews, the small business layout network based on the supply-demand relationship is obtained. The structural characteristics are analysed and the small business communities are divided. According to the small business service radius, the small business community in theory is divided and the planning optimization suggestions are put forward in combination with the actual situation. The data analysis shows that the layout of small businesses is closely related to the layout of residential areas but not closely related to the layout of purchase points, which is caused by the purchase mode of small businesses. Through the analysis of coupling characteristics, the study considers that small businesses provide a large number of daily necessities in the community. It is suggested that the layout of small businesses should be considered in the planning of public facilities and targeted space optimization strategies should be taken in different communities.
  • Pozycja
    Scale and composition, a strategy of redeveloping the historic area in Shanghai Old Town
    (Lodz University of Technology Press, 2023) Xuanbing Yang
    The old town of Shanghai is the cradle of Shanghai city and still at the centre of the grand urban pattern. Being an important historical and cultural area, together with its surrounding district formed the core of the city's economy, public activity and culture. The renewal of the old town will also be a crucial component of the establishment of Shanghai as a distinct global city which combines difficulties from all aspect of the economic sustainability and cultural feature and no longer can be avoided in the following development. Complicated and specific issues could be located in the renovation and design of the old town. And this study mainly hopes to discuss the realization of the cultural feature and the urban fabric in the process of redevelopment, focusing a certain area of the old town. The area selected was the block between Wangyun Road and middle Henan Road, in the centre of the old town, which significantly influenced the continuity of the urban fabric, as the object of the research. Through detailed mapping and field visits, we explored the variegated and spontaneous spatial characteristics of the town’s fabric and the unique local humanistic structure reflected in between. Searching for a way to achieve the integral development and cultural continuity in the context of local urban renewal. Through research, we found that in the old town of Shanghai which has the characteristics of Jiangnan water town landscape and Lilong Shikumen residence, scale and composition are important factors for understanding the spatial and humanistic structure of this area, corresponding to the richness of morphological texture and the anfractuous spatial network. On this basis, attempt to propose a method of typifying different scales and combinations, thus, achieve the goal of guiding the following practice of the local urban redevelopment.
  • Pozycja
    Exploration of the Renewal Strategy of Historic and Cultural District by the Mean of Sharing – an example of Shanghai Tilanqiao Area
    (Lodz University of Technology Press, 2023) Xu Jiaqi
    Due to the diversification of people's needs, the traditional restoration-based conservation strategies for historic and cultural districts can no longer meet contemporary needs. How to break through the traditional conservation strategy and activate historic and cultural districts in a people-oriented way by the mean of sharing will be the focus of the renewal strategy of historic and cultural districts. This paper takes the Tilanqiao district, one of the 12 historic and cultural districts in central Shanghai, as an example, and conducts a preliminary investigation into the renewal strategy of historic and cultural districts by the mean of sharing. Through field research and analysis based on Conzen urban morphology, this paper proposes that the main problems of the Tilanqiao district currently exist: narrow streets, low quality of businesses, lack of public space and no cultural atmosphere. Through the application of sharing architecture, the renewal strategy of historic and cultural districts is proposed in three aspects: sharing by all, sharing by transfer and group sharing, to contribute to the revitalization of the historic and cultural districts. This paper is subsidized by NSFC project which is named as , NO.51978468.
  • Pozycja
    Spatial form compact development path of coal mining cities – take Tangshan as an example
    (Lodz University of Technology Press, 2023) Xu Chen
    Under the background of global climate change and economic development, coal mining cities are forced to transform. However, due to the inherent geological characteristics, the transformation process is often accompanied by inefficient use of urban space. In order to realize the sustainable compact development of space, this research put forward a grid analysis method integrating geological condition, land cover, three-dimensional form of constructions, urban function and urban activity as five fundamental factors for assessing compactness of ecological, production and living spaces of coal mining cities. Tangshan, a typical coal mining city in China, was selected as a case study area. The result showed that Tangshan had experienced a complete ecological space construction but in the urban fringe, the hollowing of high-density living space and low-density production space occurred. In addition, conflicts between mines and some urban land still existed. Therefore, the research area was further divided into four regions with different development strategies: unstable region, green region, new city core and urban fringe. The new urban core was positioned as the compact development area to develop a variety of urban functions, while suggestions for reducing urban density and conservative development were adopted for unstable areas and urban fringe. The analysis and sub-regional development methods fit the characteristics of coal mining cities and can provide policy reference for their sustainable and compact development.
  • Pozycja
    Historic structure and cultural consciousness: The space regeneration of Jinling Machinery Manufacturing Bureau, China
    (Lodz University of Technology Press, 2023) Xiong Xiangrui; Wang Yanhui; Sabaté-Bel Joaquín
    Different forms of historic structures within the city show diverse cultural and social factors that not only shape the urban personality, but also construct the complexity of historical and modern spaces. Therefore, as far as urban renewal is concerned, on the one hand, it is essential to protect historic structures to stimulate cultural consciousness of spatial intervention in order to preserve the urban personality and on the other hand, it is necessary to reuse historic structures to keep the possibilities of a continuous dialogue between the past, the present and the future of the city. Through the methods of historical analysis and empirical research, this paper takes the renewal of Jinling Machinery Manufacturing Bureau (JMMB), the modern industrial site, as a case to analyze the relationship between historic structures, cultural consciousness and urban development on two scales -urban areas and plot. The research shows that: 1) the continuation of a stable historic structure is the key to maintain cultural identity in the process of space regeneration; 2) the historic structure contains tangible space forms and historical narrative logic; 3) the cultural consciousness determines the value orientation of space regeneration; and 4) the new functions match culture themes that can promote social values of space regeneration.
  • Pozycja
    Research on the integration path of historicity and life of urban Space – Taking Xuzhou Context Axis as an example
    (Lodz University of Technology Press, 2023) Xie Yuhu; Lin Yan; Li Keran
    It is the general requirement of urban renewal and construction in China during the 14th Five-year Plan period to strengthen urban cultural characteristics and improve the quality of urban life. At present, there are some theoretical and methodological contradictions between the enhancement of urban characteristics and the improvement of urban life, and it is necessary to explore and solve the method of the integration of the history and life of urban space. This paper takes Xuzhou ‘cultural axis space’ as an example, by using literature analysis summarized urban historic space, field research summary of the urban living space, finally adopts the method of graphic analysis on the historic elements of urban cultural axis space and life factor integration analysis, In order to solve the integration of cultural heritage and public life in urban renewal. Through the analysis and research, it is found that the integration path of history and life of urban space can be the overall construction of urban cultural environment, the integration of modern urban life into urban historical places, and the integration of urban cultural elements into urban public life. Through constructing the path of the integration of the history and life of urban space, it provides ideas for the construction of urban characteristic culture and the improvement of urban life in urban renewal.