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  • Pozycja
    Effect of Recycling on the Environmental Impact of a High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Module Combining Space-Grade Solar Cells and Optical Micro-Tracking
    (2023-04-07) Ziemińska-Stolarska, Aleksandra; Pietrzak, Monika; Zbiciński, Ireneusz; Faculty of Process and Environmental Engineering. Lodz University of Technology.; Faculty of Chemistry. Lodz University of Technology.
    This paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) analysis of a new, high-concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) technology developed as part of the HIPERION project of hybrid photovoltaics for efficiency record using an integrated optical technology. In the LCA calculations, the production stage of a full module was adopted as a functional unit. SimaPro version 9.00.49, the recent Ecoinvent database (3.8), and the IPCC 2021 GWP 100a environmental model were applied to perform the calculations. The environmental impact of the HCPV panel was determined for constructional data and for recycling of the main elements of the module. The results of the calculations show that recycling of PMMA, rubber, and electronic elements reduced the total carbon footprint by 17%, from 240 to 201 kg CO2-eq. The biggest environmental load was generated by the PV cells: 99.9 kg CO2eq., which corresponds to 49.8% (41.7% without recycling) of the total environmental load due to the large number of solar cells used in the construction. The emission of CO2 over a 25-year lifespan was determined from 17.1 to 23.4 g CO2-eq/kWh (20.4 to 27.9 without recycling), depending on the location. The energy payback time (EPBT) for the analyzed module is 0.87 and 1.19 years, depending on the location and the related insolation factors (Madrid: 470 kWh/m2, Lyon: 344 kWh/m2). The results of the calculations proved that the application of recycling and recovery methods for solar cells can improve the sustainability of the photovoltaic industry.
  • Pozycja
    Truskawki lepiej liofilozowane
    (Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2021) Wawrzyniak, Paweł
    Politechnika Łódzka jest partnerem w projekcie wdrożeniowym „Opracowanie innowacyjnej technologii liofilizacji truskawek w trybie ciągłym, z kontrolą i optymalizacją on-line parametrów jakościowych produktu, opartą na algorytmach sztucznej inteligencji oraz pomiarach spektralnych”. Pracami prowadzonymi w naszej uczelni kieruje dr hab. inż. Paweł Wawrzyniak z Wydziału Inżynierii Procesowej i Ochrony Środowiska, który pisze o zaplanowanych w projekcie efektach.
  • Pozycja
    Plazma w walce z włókienniczymi ściekami
    (Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2021) Bilińska, Lucyna
    Aby przybliżyć cel projektu Nowoczesna technika oczyszczania i recyklingu ścieków włókienniczych realizowana z wykorzystaniem katalizatorów plazmowych należy odpowiedzieć na pytania: dlaczego dotyczy on przemysłu włókienniczego? oraz – jak zimna plazma może pomóc w realizacji celów zrównoważonego rozwoju?
  • Pozycja
    Application of LCA to Determine Environmental Impact of Concentrated Photovoltaic Solar Panels—State-of-the-Art
    (2021-05-27) Ziemińska-Stolarska, Aleksandra; Pietrzak, Monika; Zbiciński, Ireneusz; Faculty of Process and Environmental Engineering. Lodz University of Technology.; Faculty of Chemistry. Lodz University of Technology.
    Photovoltaic systems represent a leading part of the market in the renewable energies sector. Contemporary technology offers possibilities to improve systems converting sun energy, especially for the efficiency of modules. The paper focuses on current concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) technologies, presenting data for solar cells and modules working under lab conditions as well as in a real environment. In this paper, we consider up-to-date solutions for two types of concentrating photovoltaic systems: high-concentration photovoltaics (HCPV) and low-concentration photovoltaics (LCPV). The current status of CPV solar modules was complemented by the preliminary results of new hybrid photovoltaic technology achieving records in efficiency. Compared to traditional Si-PV panels, CPV modules achieve greater conversion efficiency as a result of the concentrator optics applied. Specific CPV technologies were described in terms of efficiency, new approaches of a multijunction solar cell, a tracking system, and durability. The results of the analysis prove intensive development in the field of CPV modules and the potential of achieving record system efficiency. The paper also presents methods for the determination of the environmental impact of CPV during the entire life cycle by life cycle assessment (LCA) analysis and possible waste management scenarios. Environmental performance is generally assessed based on standard indicators, such as energy payback time, CO2 footprint, or GHG emission.
  • Pozycja
    Zagospodarowanie odpadów z garbarni
    (Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2021) Obraniak, Andrzej; Modrzewski, Remigiusz; Ławińska, Katarzyna; Gendaszewska, Dorota
    Naukowcy z Wydziału Inżynierii Procesowej i Ochrony Środowiska Politechniki Łódzkiej we współpracy z Siecią Badawczą Łukasiewicz – Instytutem Przemysłu Skórzanego w Łodzi opracowali technologię przesiewania i granulacji strużyn skór, które są odpadami z przemysłu skórzanego i garbarskiego. Proponowana metoda jest łatwa w realizacji, korzystna ekonomicznie i przyjazna dla środowiska.
  • Pozycja
    Szanujmy wodę!
    (Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2020) Imbierowicz, Mirosław
    Nie da się przecenić roli wody w życiu człowieka, dlatego w uchwale Zgromadzenia Ogólnego ONZ stwierdzono, że „prawo do bezpiecznej, czystej wody pitnej i urządzeń sanitarnych jest prawem niezbędnym, by móc w pełni korzystać z życia i praw człowieka”. (...)
  • Pozycja
    The Use of Sequential Extraction for Assessing Environmental Risks of Waste Incineration Bottom Ash
    (Towarzystwo Chemii i Inżynierii Ekologicznej (TChiIE), 2014) Wielgosiński, Grzegorz; Wasiak, Dorota; Zawadzka, Alicja
    Thermal treatment of waste is one of the ways of their processing. It is commonly used in most developed countries of the European Union. Major by-products of the combustion processes are slag and bottom ash. In the majority of EU countries bottom ash and slag are used as a priming for road construction. In Poland slag and bottom ash from incineration process are stabilized with the addition of cement and some polymers and are landfilled as wastes. In accordance to Polish law, depending on the leaching of heavy metals from fly ash and slag after thermal treatment of waste can be regarded as both hazardous and non-hazardous wastes. At present work sequential extraction methods described in the literature: Tessier’s method, van Herck’s method and BCR method were compared experimentally with the results of using Swiss standard TVA.SA.1991 and European standard EN 12457 and total concentration of metals in sample analyzed after complete digestion of sample. The study sample was bottom ash from the medical waste incineration plant.
  • Pozycja
    The use of ammonium sulfate as an inhibitor of dioxin synthesis in iron ore sintering process
    (Towarzystwo Chemii i Inżynierii Ekologicznej (TChiIE), 2014) Łechtańska, Patrycja; Wielgosiński, Grzegorz
    The main air pollutants in the sintering process of iron ore are polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and harmful dust. Ore sintering on sinter strands is one of the first technology steps in the ironworks. It is a process in which iron ore is crushed, subjected to annealing and mixed with appropriate additives, and then sintered in order to produce sinter which is the main component of iron in the blast furnace process. PCDD/Fs emissions were measured and the addition of ammonium sulfate as an inhibitor of the synthesis of dioxins in the sintering process of iron ore was studied.
  • Pozycja
    The Impact of Waste Incineration on Human Beings and The Environment
    (Towarzystwo Chemii i Inżynierii Ekologicznej (TChiIE), 2014) Wielgosiński, Grzegorz; Targaszewska, Agata
    Poruszono tematykę związaną z oddziaływaniem spalarni odpadów na zdrowie osób w nich zatrudnionych oraz środowisko naturalne. Celem pracy jest dokonanie szerokiego przeglądu istniejącego piśmiennictwa w tym zakresie. Dokonano go, korzystając z licznych, opisanych w literaturze, wyników badań wykonanych w wielu spalarniach odpadów zarówno w Europie, jak i na świecie. W analizowanych pracach poruszano tematykę zagrożeń na stanowiskach pracy, zarówno administracyjnych, jak również bezpośrednio związanych z procesem termicznego przetwarzania odpadów. Zagrożenia te wynikają między innymi z emisji do atmosfery wielu zanieczyszczeń, w tym przede wszystkim polichlorowanych dibenzo-p-dioksyn i polichlorowanych dibenzofuranów, metali ciężkich oraz niektórych lotnych związków organicznych. Wyniki badań stanowić będą istotny argument w dyskusji na ewentualnymi zagrożeniami dla ludzi i środowiska stwarzanymi przez spalarnie odpadów i celowości ich budowy w Polsce.
  • Pozycja
    Sorption Equilibrium of Azo Dyes Direct Orange 26 and Reactive Blue 81 onto a Cheap Plant Sorbent
    (Towarzystwo Chemii i Inżynierii Ekologicznej (TChiIE), 2014) Tomczak, Elwira; Tosik, Paweł
    Azo dye-plant sorbent system was investigated in the paper. Direct Orange 26 and Reactive Blue 81 azo dyes were sourced from Boruta-Zachem Kolor Sp. z o.o. Mechanically and chemically modified rye straw was used as a “low-cost” biosorbent. During experiments, dye concentration changes in the solution and sorbent in time were measured at constant temperature until equilibrium was reached. Sorption equilibrium was described by 2-parameter (Freundlich, Langmuir) and 3-parameter (Redlich-Peterson and Radke-Prausnitz) equations widely used in adsorption studies. Characteristic coefficients of equations were determined and the proposed approximations of the results of experimental studies were evaluated statistically. Higher sorption capacity was obtained for Direct Orange 26 than for Reactive Blue 81.
  • Pozycja
    Plasma Modified Polycarbonate Nonwovens as Filtering Material for Liquid Aerosols
    (Instytut Biopolimerów i Włókien Chemicznych (IBWCh) , Łódź, Polska, 2014) Brochocka, Agnieszka; Mian, Ilona; Majchrzycka, Katarzyna; Sielski, Jan; Tyczkowski, Jacek
    The filter materials commonly used in filtration processes consist of nonwoven fabrics made by melt blowing. In order to improve filtration properties they are subjected to various modifications. This paper presents the treatment of polycarbonate nonwovens with lowpressure cold plasma generated by a 13.56 MHz RF discharge using process gases such as Ar and O2. The effectiveness of such treatment was assessed on the basis of results of the penetration of nonwovens by paraffin oil mist as well as the air flow resistance. The effects of plasma on polycarbonate nonwovens, especially on their surface morphology and chemical structure, were evaluated by electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that Ar plasma is a good tool for improving the filtration properties of polycarbonate filtering materials. According to these results, the surface roughness plays an important role in the high-efficiency filtration of liquid aerosols with a small increase in air flow resistance.
  • Pozycja
    Gravity drainage kinetics of papermaking fibrous suspensions
    (Polska Akademia Nauk, 2014) Przybysz, Piotr; Kuncewicz, Czesław; Rieger, František
    The study analyses application possibilities of filtration and thickening models in evaluation of papermaking suspension drainage rate. The authors proposed their own method to estimate the drainage rate on the basis of an existing Ergun capillary model of liquid flow through a granular material. The proposed model was less sensitive to porosity changes than the Ergun model. An empirical verification proved robustness of the proposed approach. Taking into account discrepancies in the published data concerning how the drainage velocity of papermaking suspension is defined, this study examines which of the commonly applied models matches experimental results the best.
  • Pozycja
    Application of Neural Networks for Estimation of Paper Properties Based on Refined Pulp Properties
    (Instytut Biopolimerów i Włókien Chemicznych (IBWCh) , Łódź, Polska, 2014) Ciesielski, Krzysztof; Olejnik, Konrad
    The main objective of the work presented was to determine the possibility of the prediction of paper properties based on refined chemical pulp properties using the neural network approach. Three main parameters related to basic refining effects were used: pulp and fibre WRV, the amount of fines and the average fibre length. These parameters were used for prediction of the following paper parameters: apparent density, breaking length and tear resistance. The classical multilayer perceptron with one hidden layer was used. The number of inputs and outputs was related to that of input and output variables. The size of the hidden layer (number of hidden neurons) was determined experimentally. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was used as a training method. The available dataset was divided into two groups: 90% of experimental results were applied as training data and 10% for model verification. As a result of the trials conducted, a satisfactory level of the correlation between simulation data and experimental data was obtained. Results allow to presume that the method presented could be adapted for other papermaking pulp grades as a general control system in the industrial refining process. In such a case, the accuracy of the presented method could be even higher because of the large number of data available on-line. These data could be used as in a real-time training procedure, which would significantly improve the precision of the whole system. The lack of other effective methods of paper property prediction makes the method proposed an attractive solution to the problem presented.
  • Pozycja
    A New Device for Characterisation of the Drainage Kinetics of Fibrous Suspensions Under Gravity
    (The Journal of Committee of Chemical and Process of Polish Academy of Sciences, 2014) Przybysz, Piotr; Kuncewicz, Czesław; Rieger, František
    Gravity dewatering of fibrous suspension is one of basic technological operations in paper production process. Although there are numerous methods to determine dewatering of such suspensions, none of them can measure undisturbed flow of removed water. In the paper the idea and design of a new apparatus for the determination of drainage rate of fibrous suspensions is presented. The apparatus differs from other known devices by minimisation of filtrate flow resistance in the outlet part of the equipment. In the second part of the paper measurements of the drainage rate have been presented. The flow resistance of the fluid through the bottom wire screen in the device was determined. The calculated flow resistance will be used in the developed model of dynamic drainage of fibrous suspensions, which will be discussed in our following paper (Przybysz et al., 2014).
  • Pozycja
    2D FSI determination of mechanical stresses on aneurismal walls
    (IOS Press, 2014) Veshkina, Natalia; Zbiciński, Ireneusz; Stefańczyk, Ludomir
    In this study, a fluid-structure interaction analysis based on the application of patient-specific mechanical parameters of the aneurismal walls was carried out to predict the rupture side during an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Realistic geometry of the aneurysm was reconstructed from CT data acquired from the patient, and patient-specific flow conditions were applied as boundary conditions. A newly developed non-invasive methodology for determining the mechanical parameters of the patient-specific aortic wall was employed to simulate realistic aortic wall behaviors. Analysis of the results included time-averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI), and von Mises stress (VMS). Results of the TAWSS, OSI, and VMS were compared to identify the most probable region of the AAA's rupture. High OSI, which identified the region of wall degradation, coincided with the location of maximum VMS, meaning that the anterior part of the aneurismal wall was a potential region of rupture.