Materiały konferencyjne, referaty (WTMiWT)

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  • Pozycja
    Analysis of pressure parameters in orthopedic footwear for people suffering from diabetic foot syndrome
    (Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2022) Mikołajczyk, Zbigniew; Nowak, Iwona; Kuchyts, Yvan; Mikołajczyk-Solińska, Melania
    The paper examines the anthropotechnical design of orthopedic footwear for patients with diabetic foot syndrome. A 3D distance knitted fabric is used for the shoe insert. For the purpose of the research, a 7 mm thick knitted fabric with transverse elasticity of 76 kPa was designed and produced on a doublebar warp knitting machine. With the use of the FreeMed Professional strain gauge mat, the pressures exerted by the foot on a „bare” walking surface and on the surface equipped with the distance knitted fabric were measured and compared, proving that in the latter case the unit pressure on the patient's foot decreased by 25%. The obtained measurements provide a good starting point for further research on the optimization of loads on the human foot, in case of various lower limbs diseases, including anatomical changes, as well as and in relation to people who are physically overloaded due to working in standing position or being in constant motion.
  • Pozycja
    Spatial structure`s analysis of 3D knitted spacer fabric
    (Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2022) Walkowska, Aleksandra; Mikołajczyk, Zbigniew
    The subject of this paper concerns an identification of a spatial structure of a warp-knitted spacer fabric, paying particular attention to the structure of the inner layer. The transverse elasticity of the knitted fabric, both in static and dynamic terms, will depend on the properties of the monofilament, its shape and Young's modulus. The environments of OptaView and Inventor programs were used in the research. Analytical activities were selected that enabled the creation of theoretical models. The empirical verification showed the compliance of the model objects with the actual shape of the threads. It has been proved that the developed methodology can be used in the description of the spatial structure of the spacer knitted fabric as an indispensable element in the numerical experiment of the mechanical properties of the knitted fabric.
  • Pozycja
    Knitted shields against electromagnetic waves
    (Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2022) Mikołajczyk, Zbigniew; Nowak, Iwona; Szewczyk, Monika; Januszkiewicz, Łukasz; Junak, Joanna
    The purpose of the research is to counteract the negative impact of electromagnetic waves on the human body by using knitted textile barriers. Four variants of knitted fabrics with plain weft stitches were designed and manufactured from electrically conductive yarns with resistance of 490 ohms. The variants of the knitted fabrics differed significantly in structural parameters, including loop density – varying from 15 to 0.9 thousand loops and fabric cover from 64 to 33%. The barrier properties against reflected waves at frequencies from 2 to 7 GHz ranged from 10 to 64 dB. It has been proven that shielding effectiveness SE depends on stitch geometry and structural parameters of the knitted fabric. It is a good starting point for further research on the optimization of the performance of knitted barriers against electromagnetic waves.
  • Pozycja
    Numerical analysis of the dynamic thread stretching process
    (Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2022) Prążyńska, Aleksandra; Mikołajczyk, Zbigniew; Kuchar, Maciej
    The subject of the paper is the analysis of the dynamic thread stretching process under extreme conditions of the excitation speed with the physical phenomena described in terms of rheological models. The analysis was carried out using three basic models relating to viscoelastic bodies, i.e. the Maxwell, Kelvin-Voigt and Standard 2 models. The relationships between the reaction forces of the stretched threads and the input parameters of the process were included both in an analytical form and in a numerical model. The theoretical analysis was related to the experimental tests carried out on polyester threads with a linear mass of 84, 110 and 334 dtex, assuming the tensile speed ranging from 0.6 to 1.5 m / s. The experiment was carried out on a custom designed test stand. In the conclusion of the obtained research, it can be stated that the most appropriate model for the description of the analysed thread stretching process is the Standard model 2 and it should be emphasized that the traditional analysis based on analytical relationships coincides with the results of numerical analysis. This proves the correctness of the adopted numerical model with specific boundary conditions.
  • Pozycja
    Identification of wearing comfort of the textile uppers of commercial footwear
    (Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2022) Kaziur, Patrycja; Mikołajczyk, Zbigniew; Matusiak, Małgorzata
    Knitting technologies have contributed to the production of textile footwear not only to reduce waste, but also to increase their physiological comfort. In this study, the functional properties of twelve commercially available knitted uppers and two footwear leathers were identified. For each of the tested variants, the following parameters were determined: thickness, mass per square meter, air and water vapor permeability, and selected parameters related to the thermal insulation and moisture sorption. On the basis of conducted research, it was shown that the best parameters were characteristic for knitted fabrics with jacquard weaves produced on cylindrical crocheting machines of large diameters.
  • Pozycja
    Design and research of a new type of anti-vibration gloves with the use of distance knitted fabrics
    (Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2022) Gębicki, Mateusz; Węglarski, Kamil; Pawliczak, Zbigniew; Frydrysiak, Michał
    The paper presents tests of vibration damping in anti-vibration gloves with knitted spacers. The research was carried out at the Lodz University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Technology and Textile Design. Measurements of the anti-vibration properties of the gloves were made on two types of vibration generating devices - a hammer drill and an orbital sander. Two gloves with spacer knitted inserts with different physico-mechanical parameters and one standard available on the market were tested. The conducted research shows that all gloves have vibro-insulating properties to a different degree.
  • Pozycja
    Preliminary studies on the preparation and properties of chitosan nonwovens modified with acid vapors
    (Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2022) Sikorski, Dominik; Bauer, Marta; Frączyk, Justyna; Draczyński, Zbigniew
    The aim of the study was to develop methods for modifying chitosan nonwovens in the gas phase (application of acid vapors). Organic and inorganic acids were used in the research. The time of treating chitosan nonwovens with acid vapors ranged from 10 to 120 min. The conducted research has shown that it is possible to modify chitosan nonwovens with the use of acid vapors (organic and inorganic). It was found that the action of acid vapors does not have a destructive effect on chitosan fibers (SEM tests), which means that the developed method can be applied to various forms of chitosan materials, while the modification is carried out on the finished form. Microbiological tests were used to investigate the activity and growth of the microorganisms, which were related to the acids in the modified nonwovens. Only materials modified with acetic acid and hydrochloric acid were found to have bacteriostatic properties against S. aureus and E. coli (gramnegative and gram-positive bacteria). It was also found that chitosan formate significantly reduced the number of colonies of S. aureus.
  • Pozycja
    Analysis of thermal aging effect on the tensile strength of textile materials intended for the reinforcement of conveyor belt
    (Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2022) Lemmi, Tsegaye Sh.; Barburski, Marcin
    Woven fabrics produced from high tenacity (HT) polyester/polyamide 66 yarns are most widely used to reinforce conveyor belts in the mechanical rubber goods industry. The tensile property of the conveyor belt is primarily dependent on the property of fabrics used to reinforce the belt. During the production process of the conveyor belt, the textile-rubber reinforcement undergoes a vulcanization process at high temperature to provide compulsory physio-mechanical properties of the belt by adhering the woven fabric with a rubber. Subjecting textile materials to high temperatures for the vulcanization process has an influence on the mechanical properties of the woven fabric. The main aim of this work was to investigate the effect of thermal aging on the tensile property of HT polyester yarn and woven fabric which is intended to reinforce conveyor belt. An extensive experiment on HT polyester yarn and the woven fabric was conducted by subjecting the textile materials to various aging temperatures. Additionally, the tensile property of fabrics after the vulcanization process of the conveyor belt was conducted to fully understand the effect of vulcanization temperature on the properties of woven fabric. The experimental test results of polyester yarn, woven fabric, and fabrics removed from the conveyor belt revealed that vulcanizing of the textile reinforced conveyor belt at high temperature(220 °C) can diminish the tensile strength and increase the elongation at break of the yarn and fabric.
  • Pozycja
    Synthesis of mix chitin esters
    (Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2022) Bednarowicz, Anna; Tarzyńska, Nina; Patlewicz, Marta; Draczyński, Zbigniew
    The aim of this study was the synthesis of chitin esters, which at a later stage could be used to produce antibacterial textiles. The esterification of chitin was carried out using butyric anhydride, succinic anhydride and methanesulfonic acid as a catalyst. The produced products were analysed by FTIR and NMR techniques and the dynamic apparent viscosity of the spinning solutions was examined. The products containing butyl and succinic anhydride in molar ratios 95/5 and 85/15 showed the best properties.
  • Pozycja
    Accelerated hydrolysis of PLA fibers at low temperature
    (Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2022) Tarbuk, Anita; Čorak, Ivana; Đorđević, Dragan; Draczyński, Zbigniew
    The polylactide (PLA) is the most common biodegradable material. However, its biodegradation requires hydrolysis of PLA to oligomers or monomers before microbes can act. Hydrolytic degradation of PLA depends on temperature, time and relative humidity. It takes months and years until complete biodegradation. If a catalyst is introduced, i.e. alkali or alcohol, it can be done in weeks. In this article, the alkaline hydrolysis was performed at low temperatures 40-60°C without and with the addition of cationic compound as an accelerator for the purpose of saving energy and time for complete PLA degradation. It has been shown that complete degradation can be achieved in only 10 min at 40°C.
  • Pozycja
    Comparison of composites containing technical embroidery and woven fabric as reinforcement
    (Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2022) Poniecka, Agata; Barburski, Marcin; Angulo, David Ranz; Cuartero, Jesus
    The following research present a comparison of the strength values of composites containing two types of reinforcements: technical embroidery and woven fabric. Both types of reinforcements were made of flax roving with a linear mass of 400 tex. The technical embroidery was made on a computerized embroidery machine ZSK, type JCZA 0109-550. The use of technical embroidery technology is in line with the idea of sustainable development by minimizing waste generated in the production of composite reinforcements. Tensile strength and tensile elongation tests were carried out. As a result of the conducted research, it was proved that the composite containing the technical embroidery as the reinforcement showed higher tensile strength in the longitudinal direction, compared to the composite containing the fabric as the reinforcement. On the other hand, the composite containing fabric as a reinforcement showed a greater elongation.
  • Pozycja
    1D, 2D and 3D dosimetry – a brief overview of the DosLab group’s research work
    (Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2022) Sąsiadek-Andrzejczak, Elżbieta; Jaszczak, Malwina; Maras, Piotr; Dudek, Mariusz; Piotrowski, Michał; Kozicki, Marek
    DosLab is a research group from the Lodz University of Technology, Poland. The research topics carried out by the DosLab group are innovative and interdisciplinary, covering the area of textile engineering, materials engineering, radiation chemistry and medical physics. This study is intended to present an overview of the group's work related to 1D, 2D and 3D dosimetry of UV and ionizing radiation.
  • Pozycja
    Sound wave absorption properties of multi-layers of different woven fabric structures
    (Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2022) Bethalihem, Samuel; Barburski, Marcin; Witczak, Ewa
    Nowadays, acoustic health is a priority issue in homes and offices. To address the problem, a variety of sound-absorbing materials are used, one of which is woven and nonwoven fabrics. This paper focused on the sound absorption analysis of two different woven fabric structures as an increasing layer and with base material nonwoven fabric. The fabrics' sound absorption properties were determined using an impedance tube across 80–5000 (Hz) frequencies. The result demonstrated that the absorption of sound energy through plain fabric decreases as the number of layers was increased. On the other hand, in the case of a sateen fabric structure, the absorption of sound energy increases with the number of layers. The absorption capabilities of sateen fabrics are particularly impressive in the high-frequency ranges. The double and triple layers of plain fabric, on the other hand, demonstrate high sound absorption results at frequencies below 1000 Hz in comparison to sateen fabric.
  • Pozycja
    Influence of stretching on liquid moisture transport in knitted fabrics
    (Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2022) Matusiak, Małgorzata; Froschauer, Sabrina
    Moisture management in clothing is defined as the transfer of moisture from human body to the environment through the clothing [1]. Water vapour and liquid water (perspiration) need to get away from the human body to outside to keep the body dry. This action should happen immediately to have the maximal comfort of clothing usage. The aim of work was to investigate the liquid moisture transport in the knitted fabrics for babies and children clothing. Three variants of fabrics were the objects of the investigations. Measurement of the properties characterizing the liquid moisture transport in fabrics have been performed by means of the M290 Moisture Management Tester (SDL Atlas) [1,2]. Fabrics were tested in the relaxed and stretched state. Stretching of fabrics was realized by using the MMT Stretch Fabric Fixture device [3]. The percentage of stretch was adjusted at 15 %. On the basis of the results the knitted fabrics were compared in the aspect of their ability to ensure a physiological comfort. Influence of stretching on the parameters characterizing the liquid moisture transport in the fabrics was statistically analyzed and discussed.
  • Pozycja
    Moisture transport in woven fabrics containing cotton fibers
    (Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2022) Kamińska, Dominika; Matusiak, Małgorzata
    Cotton is currently the most commonly used raw material of natural origin in a production of clothing. Due to its very good hygroscopic properties, it is also often used in production of underwear, bandages etc. A liquid moisture transport plays a crucial role in shaping a physiological comfort. As part of this study 2 pairs of woven fabrics containing cotton fibers with twill 3/1 S weaves were tested in the range of their ability to moisture transport in the form of liquid. Moisture transport is the fabric's ability to wick moisture away from the body. The investigation were carried out on the Moisture Management Tester. The investigations allowed to assess the moisture transport of individual fabrics.
  • Pozycja
    Research on surface geometry of woven fabrics of different structure
    (Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2022) Kosiuk, Gabriela; Matusiak, Małgorzata
    The geometric structure of surface of textile materials is of significant functional, operational and aesthetic importance. Generally, the geometric structure of the surface of materials consists of three main elements: shape, waviness and roughness [1,2]. Parameters characterizing a quality of fabrics surface, i.e. surface topography are strongly related to the fabrics’ structure, raw material composition and a way of finishing. The aim of presented work was to analyse the parameters characterizing the geometric structure of the surface of cotton woven fabrics with different weaves. Totally, 12 fabric variants were the objects of the investigations. They were woven fabrics of 6 weaves and 2 kinds of weft yarn. Surface topography measurements were made by means of the MicroSpy® Profile profilometer by FRT the art of metrology™ [3]. Using the Mark III software cooperating with the profilometer, the basic parameters characterizing the geometric structure of the fabrics’ surface were determined according to standard [4]. Results showed that the fabrics differ between each other in the aspect of the majority of parameters characterizing the surface geometry. Statistical analysis confirmed that weave and linear density of weft yarn significantly influence the surface properties of the investigated fabrics.
  • Pozycja
    Textile ballistic shields with embroidered structure
    (Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2022) Gloger, Maciej; Stempień, Zbigniew; Pinkos, Justyna
    Textile ballistic shields are the basis of protection against bullets and fragments with low kinetic energy. They are usually made of para-aramid fabrics or UD sheets of HPPE. The aim of the research presented in this article was to obtain ballistic packages made of embroidered structures and to compare their ballistic properties with those of woven structures, in terms of deformation of the standardised ballistic substrate after impact with a 9 mm bullet at a velocity of 380±3 m/s. The embroidered structures were made by embroidering two sets of para-aramid threads at an angle of 90°. As with the woven structures, the use of para-aramid fabric made of the same yarn and with a surface weight comparable to that of an embroidered structure, was adopted. The ballistic packages consisted of 26 layers in five variants, taking into account the hybrid arrangement of woven and embroidered layers. Ballistic tests have shown that the best ballistic properties have hybrid packages made by folding 13 woven and then 13 embroidered layers, where the maximum deformation of the plasticine substrate was below 23 mm. The conducted research confirmed that embroidered structures can significantly improve the ballistic properties of textile packages when appropriately combined with woven structures.
  • Pozycja
    Materiał konserwatorski z udziałem modyfikowanych biochemicznie włókien jedwabiu do konserwacji tkanin zabytkowych
    (Wydawnictwo SIGMA-NOT, 2006) Potocka, Anna D.; Marcinkowska, Marzanna; Machnowski, Waldemar; Wrzosek, Henryk
    Przedstawiono możliwość wytworzenia papieru z udziałem włókien jedwabiu naturalnego. Papier o gramaturze ok. 25 g/m2, zawierający w swym składzie ponad 60% włókien jedwabiu, jest cennym materiałem do konserwacji zabytkowych tkanin jedwabnych. W celu ułatwienia wytworzenia pulpy o składzie jedwab-linters, zastosowano obróbkę enzymatyczną włókien jedwabiu. Efekty modyfikacji powierzchni tych włókien oceniano wykorzystując technikę skaningowej mikroskopii elektronowej (SEM). Wytworzone arkusze papieru badano pod kątem jednorodności struktury, wytrzymałości mechanicznej oraz parametrów aplikacyjnych w procesie konserwacji tkanin. Stwierdzono, że wytworzony papier z udziałem włókien jedwabiu spełnia oczekiwania konserwatorów.
  • Pozycja
    Modyfikacja budowy i właściwości włókien i tekstyliów w wyniku obróbki biochemicznej
    (Wydawnictwo SIGMA-NOT, 2006) Machnowski, Waldemar; Lipp-Symonowicz, Barbara; Wrzosek, Henryk; Kowalska, Stanisława
    Stosowanie metod biochemicznych w przemyśle włókienniczym cieszy się wciąż niesłabnącym zainteresowaniem. Jest to spowodowane przez fakt, że stwarzają one możliwość ograniczenia uciążliwości dla środowiska ze strony wielu procesów produkcyjnych. Omówiono przydatność kilku grup enzymów w operacjach wykończania włókien bawełny, lnu, wełny i jedwabiu. Na podstawie obrazów, uzyskanych techniką skaningowej mikroskopii elektronowej (SEM), przeanalizowano wpływ obróbki enzymatycznej na zmiany struktury powierzchni włókien. Przedstawiając obrazy mikroskopowe przekroju poprzecznego włókien lnu, wyjaśniono wpływ obróbki enzymatycznej włókna na efektywność następnych operacji oraz na cechy użytkowe wyrobów lnianych.