The influence of selected process factors on the physicochemical and biological properties of honeys: A review
Olejnik, Tomasz P.
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Honey is one of the world's most valued natural food products. Characteristic, pleasant aroma, golden colour, sweet taste and healthpromoting properties cause a continuous increase of honey consumption in the European Union. The most wanted is regional honey. However, imported honey available on the market has often lower prices. The honey obtained can be heat treated, which reduces water content and can slow down the growth of the microorganisms, which are responsible for the undesirable fermentation of honey. Unprocessed honey appears to be the healthiest, but in practice, it’s often heat treated to slow down or back up the crystallization process and to make its dosage during technical processes easier. It is widely believed that heating of honey may have a harmful impact on its properties. There are countless articles of popular science, that warn of heating and cooking with honey. Should honey never be heated?The aim of this work is to give an overview of the influence of technical processes on the physicochemical and health-promoting properties of honey. The results demonstrated that the physicochemical and bioactive properties of honey are significantly affected by thermal treatment. As a result of the temperature, it comes to the Maillard reaction, during which HMF is synthesized. Furthermore, heating affects the activity of the enzymes contained in honey, among others, diastase and inverses. However, few studies made in this field show that honey heat treatment may work in favour of antioxidant properties. Depending on the type of honey, melanoidins may increase or decrease the antioxidant activity.