# Journal of Applied Computer Science

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**Journal of Applied Computer Science** publishes original papers concerned with theory and practice of computer science and innovative computer technology as well as their application in engineering, biomedicine, ecology, socioeconomics and education.

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Pozycja Affective Pathfinding in Video Games(Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2018) Daszuta, Marcin; Wróbel, Filip; Rynkiewicz, Filip; Szajerman, Dominik; Napieralski, PiotrTo allow player submerge in created environment of a video game, agents called Non-Player Characters (NPCs) should act believably. One of the most vital aspect, in case of NPCs is pathfinding. There are a few methods that allow change path finding algorithms to become more human-like. Yet, those are not considering many vital aspects of human decisions regarding path choosing. The main purpose of this paper is to present known approaches and show example of a new approach that wider considers psychological aspects of decision making in case of choosing a path.Pozycja Basic Mechanisms of Brownian String Analysis and Manipulation(Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2018) Bartyzel, KrzysztofThe paper presents the possibilities of using Brownian Strings as an example of Active Contour Model for linguistic description of objects in an image. Having only a notation composed of a combination of characters RULD we can calculate the statistics of the object, such as its surface area, width and height, centroid, and even image moments. The part is thoroughly discussed. The requirements for a combination of characters RULD to be called a Brownian contour are also presented and analysed carefully.Pozycja Black-Gray-White Barcode Based on Error Correction Data Encoding(Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2019) Dychka, Ivan; Sulema, OlgaThe paper presents an approach based on using barcodes with three color gradations (white, gray, and black) instead of traditional black and white barcodes. Such three-color barcodes can be produced and read by using the same equipment as usual black and white barcodes, but due to the third color they have a higher information density.It is shown in the paper that in order to ensure high reliability and accuracy of barcoded information reading, it is necessary to encode the data with a Reed-Solomon correction code which is capable of correcting multiple errors.The method of data encoding and decoding in the Galois field GF(3m), where m is the degree of an irreducible polynomial, is proposed. The noise immunity of the black-gray-white barcode capable of multiple errors correction based on Reed-Solomon code is analyzed and discussed as well.Pozycja Classification of Objects in a Point Cloud using Neural Networks(Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2019) Daszuta, Marcin; Napieralska-Juszczak, Ewa3-dimensional scans captured in shape of point clouds are widely used in many dierent areas. Every such area use dierent kinds of sensors to ac-quire point clouds and do the analysis of the data but each of those needs some preanalysis to be done. One of the most important is segmentation and classification of points into types of objects. Such information considerably widens possibilities of usage for further purposes. There are many classifiers and many features based on which labeling can be done. In this paper few most commonly used approaches were chosen to check the influence of neighboring points acquisition on classification process. Results proof significant relation between those two steps of point cloud analysis. Visualization of analyzed point cloud also shown that precision of predictions not always comes with better visibility of certain types of objects. Additionally, color-less analysis of geometrical features seems to be promising way for further research.Pozycja Computational Complexity and Numerical Optimization of Adaptive Kuwahara Filter(Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2017) Bartyzel, KrzysztofAdaprive Kuwahara filter produces very interesting results and significantly improves the efficiency and performance of the original algorithm in the context of noise reduction without blurring the edges. This document contains the experimental and theoretical comparison of the computational complexity of the modified algorithm and the consideration of optimization methods.Pozycja Dedicated Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Systems: A Novel Approach to DeNOx Filtration Systems(Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2018) Niewiadomski, Adam; Kacprowicz, MarcinThe paper presents some novel research on applications of Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Systems to support the Selective Catalytic Reduction process (SCR). The aim of the research is to design and test higher order fuzzy logic systems and their genuine modiﬁcations to manage data in DeNOx systems responsible for controlling emission of nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2). Since in real applications, it is still performed under the supervision of a human expert, the scope is to replace, at least partially, his/her participation with dedicated type-2 fuzzy logic systems. As the result, it is shown that the proposed systems with new means of learning fuzzy IF-THEN rules allow us to compute parameters much closer to those determined by experts, even in a comparison to some earlier approaches based on traditional fuzzy logic.Pozycja Digitizing of Analogue Data-Charts from Thermohygrographs(Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2017) Radon, JanA thermo-hygrograph is a chart recorder that measures and records both temperature and humidity in an analogue form. Converting the results into digital form is necessary to enhance evaluation of measurements archived on paper charts. Coordinate system of the charts is different than common Cartesian rectangular axis. Temperature and relative humidity axis are curved according to recorder pen holder ray. Different chart types, depending on particular thermohygrograph model, were used so far. In every case, however, the axis grid depicted in the background is geometrically precisely defined. So pattern recognition techniques could be used to find its location automatically. Temperature and relative humidity patterns can be retrieved automatically assuming that the color group of plotted lines is different than the background including the grid. Due to storing conditions, manual descriptions, discoloration and other factors, the plotted pattern cannot be unambiguously identified. Many randomly scattered pixels are interpreted as being part of a plotted line. Among additional measures, like excluding particular areas from analysis, manually removing and including points, a vector analysis of retrieved courses makes digitizing more effective.Pozycja Discretisation of Thermal Diffusion Equation in Multilayer Structures with Variable Material Parameters and Different Thicknesses(Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2018) Sobieski, Wojciech; Trykozko, AnnaThe paper presents details of discretisation of a thermal diffusion equation in one-dimensional space in terms of the Finite Volume Method. In the following sections, the method of space discretisation is discussed along with the approximation of a spatial derivative, matrix notation of a system of equations, special cases, approximation of three types of boundary conditions and derivative approximation over time. Much attention is also given to the issue of averaging material properties which can generally be different in adjacent cells.The study aims to analyse various multilayer structures for their suitability as heat storage. The launch of studies described in the paper has been driven by the lack of methods for effective heat storage, which is currently one of the key problems faced by the renewable energy industry.Pozycja Error Reduction for Static Localization(Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2020) Morawska, Barbara; Lichy, Krzysztof; Koch, Piotr; Niedźwiedzki, Jakub; Leplawy, Marcin; Lipiński, PiotrThis article describes methods for reducing the position measure-ment error of ultra-wideband localization system - DecaWave TREK1000. The static localization accuracy of this system can achieve 10cm. The local-ization algorithm introduced in this paper can improve it up to 1 centimeter. We could achieve such good accuracy, thanks to experiments that were car-ried out in various environmental conditions. This allowed us to identify the nature of the measurement error and design the correct set of filters.Pozycja The Evaluation of Text String Matching Algorithms as an Aid to Image Search(Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2018) Ochelska-Mierzejewska, JoannaThe main goal of this paper is to analyse intelligent text string matching methods (like fuzzy sets and relations) and evaluate their usefulness for image search. The present study examines the ability of different algorithms to handle multi-word and multi-sentence queries. Eight different similarity measures (N-gram, Levenshtein distance, Jaro coefficient, Dice coefficient, Overlap coeffiient, Euclidean distance, Cosine similarity and Jaccard similarity) are employed to analyse the algorithms in terms of time complexity and accuracy of results. The outcomes are used to develop a hierarchy of methods, illustrating their usefulness to image search. The search response time increases signiﬁcantly in the case of data sets containing several thousand images. The ﬁndings indicate that the analysed algorithms do not fulﬁl the response-time requirements of professional applications. Due to its limitations, the proposed system should be considered only as an illustration of a novel solution with further development perspectives. The use of Polish as the language of experiments affects the accuracy of measures. This limitation seems to be easy to overcome in the case of languages with simpler grammar rules (e.g. English).Pozycja Generalized Structure of the Algorithm for Automated Detection of Non Relevant and Wrong Information on Web Resources(Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2017) Dyvak, Mykola; Kovbasistyi, Andrii; Stakhiv, Petro; Lipiński, PiotrIn this article the algorithm for automated detection of non-relevant or wrong information on websites is introduced. The algorithm extracts the semantic information from the webpage using third party software and compares the semantic information with the reliable resources. Reliable information is identified by the means of majority voting or extracted from reliable databases.Pozycja Geometric Transformations Embedded into Convolutional Neural Networks(Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2016) Tarasiuk, Paweł; Pryczek, MichałThis paper presents a novel extension to convolutional neural networks. While CNNs are known for invariance to object translation, changes to the other parameters could make the image recognition tasks diffcult – that includes rotations and scaling. Some improvement in this area could be achieved with embedded geometric transformations used inside the CNNs. In order to provide a practical solution, which allows fast propagation and learning of the modified networks, “fast geometric transformations” are introduced.Pozycja Heterogeneous Fog Generated with the E ect of Light Scattering and Blur(Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2018) Gawron, Michał; Boryczka, UrszulaThe development of computer graphics forces new requirements on the developers, which will make the virtual world more similar to the real world. One of these elements is the simulation of fog. Common fog algorithms mix the color of the scene with the color of the fog over a certain distance. However, one feature of the naturally foggy scenery is ignored. With the distance and density of the fog, the observed scenery or individual objects become more blurred. In this paper we will present our implementation of the distance fog in the Unreal Engine 4, including the effect of blurring the foggy areas, simulating of light scattering and variations in fog density using noise.Pozycja Integrity Rules for Multiargument Relationships in Possibilistic Databases(Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2016) Myszkorowski, KrzysztofThe paper contains an analysis of multiargument relationships in possibilistic databases. A multiargument relationship may be formally presented using the relational notation R(X1, X2,...,Xn), where R is the name of the relationship and attributes Xi denote keys of entity sets which participate in it. The dependencies between all n attributes describe the integrity constraints and must not be infringed. They constitute a restriction for relationships of fewer attributes. In the paper it is considered a possible coexistence of associations between k < n attributes of the n-ary relationship. The analysis is carried out using the theory of fuzzy functional dependencies. The notion of functional dependency has been appropriately extended according to the representation of data.Pozycja Interval Model of Dynamics of Dispersion of Harmful Pollution from Vehicular Traffic(Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2016) Dyvak, Mykola; Stakhiv, Petro; Pukas, Andriy; Voytyuk, Iryna; Porplytsya, Natalia; Maslyiak, YuriiThe method of structure identification of interval discrete dynamic models, based on principles of the bee colonies functioning is represented. An example of the implementation of method for modeling of air pollution by harmful vehicle emissions is considered.Pozycja Linguistic Summaries of Graph Databases in Customer Relationship Management (CRM)(Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2019) Bartczak, Monika; Niewiadomski, AdamThe paper concentrates on data models that differ from the traditional relational one by Codd (1970). In particular, we are interested in processing graph databases (graph datasets) without any pre-configured structure, in which graph nodes may represent different objects and graph edges – relations between them. In this approach, the linguistic summarization methods for graph datasets are introduced, and differences for these methods with respect to traditional relational approach are shown, commented and improved in comparison to the preceding proposition (Strobin, Niewiadomski, 2016). The novelty of the paper is mostly the new form for summaries: Multi-Subject linguistic summaries of graph databases, previously introduced for relational databases (Superson, 2018).Pozycja Loading Initial Data into the Quantum Register(Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2020) Ostrowski, MarcinIn this paper, we examine a simple algorithm for loading initial data into the quantum register. In order to perform the algorithm standard two input gates are used. The algorithm is tested for the Gaussian and sine wave states. In the Appendix full PyQuil code of the algorithm is attached.Pozycja Medical-Grade Network Security - Air-Gap Isolation and PossibleWeak Points(Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2016) Arendt, DanielModern medical imaging devices (MID) are usually connected to the network. Transfer of digital data to the Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) and then to Hospital Information Systems (HIS) without the internal network is not technically nor economically reasonable. It is estimated that by the interconnection of medical devices and providing remote access to them, health care costs will be cut by $ 63 billion till 2030. Sharing MID’s over public network by remote access can dramatically cut costs of medical care but creates risks well known from oce networks. The firewall/IDS and the air gap isolation techniques are there applicable. Medical society ask for advice what to choose or what are the threats of network operation of medical devices. Here will be given description of known attacks on the security of air gapped networks and cases of disorder operation of systems and ecient data transfer from networks traditionally known as invulnerable and impermeable. Analyzing the presented cases of successful attacks allows to identify weak points of the air-gap mechanism. In conclusion opinion how to straighten security of isolated networks will be given, on the other hand an eective IDS has advantage and many strong points.Pozycja A Memory Model for Emotional Decision-Making Agent in a Game(Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2018) Rogalski, Jakub; Szajerman, DominikVirtual characters are an important part of many modern computer games. This paper describes a graph-based memory system designed for artiﬁcial agents that also simulate simple emotions. The system was tested using virtual simulation environment and it showed many new and desirable AI behaviours. These behaviours include simple preferences, reactions based on bot’s opinion of a stimuli or improvement of bot’s ability to ﬁnd objects to interact with.Pozycja Modelling Heat Flow in a Heat Storage System with the Use of the Finite Volume Method(Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, 2019) Sobieski, WojciechNon-stationary heat flow was analysed in a heat storage system comprising a flat multilayer structure with different parameters and thickness. Concrete was the heat storage material, and water was the transfer medium responsible for supplying and evacuating heat from the storage medium. It was assumed that the modelled heat storage system may be powered by a solar thermal collector. Data were collected over a period of 24 hours, and they were analysed separately for the heat accumulation phase and the heat recovery phase. Calculations were performed in a program developed by the author based on the Finite Volume Method (FVM). The main aim is to illustrate the basic features of the developed numerical code and to find effective methods for evaluating the applicability of the modelled structures for heat storage. Except that, in the paper the possibilities are discussed for the use of the source component of the diffusion equation to describe various phenomena of physical, chemical and biological nature. The present article was motivated by the observation that FVM is currently not applied in the process of designing heat storage systems.