The determinants of biotechnology development by academic entrepreneurship and spin-off companies in the commercialization process of scientific research results in Poland
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Innovative sectors of high technology are considered as one of the most important elements of the modern economy. The biotechnology industry perfectly fulfills the criteria of belonging to sectors of this type, and by some researchers  its development is considered indispensable for the functioning of modern economy. In technologically advanced industries, progress is impossible without access to knowledge and innovation, the most important source of which are research and development (R&D) institutions – both parts of companies and state research and educational entities (higher education institutions).