Zespoły fabryczno-mieszkalne w europejskim przemyśle włókienniczym w latach 1771-1914. Geneza - Rozwój - Typologia
Walczak, Bartosz M.
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The aim of this research has been to present selected issues related to the development of industrial complexes integrated with workers housing in European textile industry over the period 1771-1914. The initial dlate refers to the establishment of the first modern spinning mill and related housing in Cromford, England. The outbreak of the World War I marks the end of the analysed period and the beginning of dramatic change of the social and economical realm in Europe. It is necessary to underline that author aimed to create a panorama of industrial complexes instead of evaluation of Polish achievements in the European context. The book comprises of two parts. The first includes four chapters. The subject of the first chapter is the workers housing question form the Middle Ages to the birth of the Industrial Revolution. Particular interest was given the issue of the evolution of a house as a craftsman' s place of living and working. Origins of the industrial complexes from the monasteries to centralised manufactories were also described. The research focused on the textiles. However, the cases from other industry branches were given to allow comparisons as well as better meaning of the processes throughout Europe. The following chapter deals with various aspects potentially decisive for the origins and development of industrial complexes, specifically in the textiles. First, the issues related to the technological advancement and industrial growth were outlined. Secondly, evolution of attitudes towards social, economical and religious questions was described. The changes in the legal framework were also illustrated. The development of the architectural and urban planning theory was of particular interest including specifics of the industrial buildings. Finally, the world exhibitions were described as an important platform for the international exchange and dissemination of the new solutions in diverse fields: technology, production organisation, civil engineering and architecture, and even social reforms. Third chapter provides 41 case studies - industrial complexes selected to illustrate development of spatial composition, building types and forms during the analysed period. Therefore, a chronological order was adopted for the case studies. The decisive criterion was the dlate when the first workers houses were built. Each study includes short historical outline, description of the spatial layout, characteristics of major industrial buildings, houses and amenities. In some cases short information about present state was included. Due to variety of sources of information as well as diverse specifics of analysed sites it was impossible to adopt unified description pattern. The fourth chapter includes a comparative analysis, taking account of functional, spatial and architectural issues. The timeline of sites development with periods of intensified investment was indicated. The distribution of textile complexes in Europe was also investigated. Then the urban and topographical context, including features such as water (rivers, canals, reservoirs) and transport routes. Furthermore, functional program and spatial organisation of the complexes were examined. This is followed by a synthesis of industrial buildings and workers housing with typological approach. What is more, the comparison of analysed textile sites with the most important examples related to other branches of European industry allowed their evaluation in wider context. The chapter concludes with an appraisal of the industrial complexes and workers housing in European textile industry. The second part of this book includes a gazetteer of textile industry sites identified in course of the research. There are 281 industrial complexes with workers' housing mentioned in this chapter. The alphabetical order was adopted, reflecting a current national status of the sites. Author believes the current research proved that integrated industrial complexes with workers housing were integral components of the nineteenth-century European landscape and important part of local heritage in many regions. The existence of such industrial sites is decisive for a particular, distinctive image of many towns and villages, and what is more symbolise processes which become commonplace throughout the industrialising Europe in the nineteenth century. Although the textile complexes were widespread they maintained their local specifics. Apparently cultural diversity was stronger than universalism of the nineteenth-century capitalism. The sites are linked by generał social and economical concept and not by spatial and architectural solutions. The integrated industrial complexes were not only production places but also living environments. Merger of civilisation and nature features formed relatively pleasant dwelling conditions. Spatial order and social harmony survived until the 1970s, when the crisis badly affected traditional branches of European industry. The decline in manufacturing meant the loss of the economical base for the inhabitants of factory villages. But in many cases it also meant decline of the neighbourhood and disintegration of social bonds. Transformation of European industry affected the level of preservation of old industrial complexes. Only few sites are generally appreciated and fully protected. This in particular refers to the UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Taking into consideration the historical values and spatial quality of the textile complexes, they should not be omitted in the regeneration process. Their renewal, however, requires an integrated, holistic approach including urban, architectural, conservation and social issues. Project management and co-ordination should focus on the protection of the integrity of the site, which is necessary for proper evaluation, comprehensive meaning of the place and appropriate interpretation. Tuus, author has trusted that the outcomes of the accomplished research will contribute to increased knowledge, better understanding and in consequence improved protection and regeneration of integrated industrial complexes.